Sharklato genetics

Table S2. Table S3. In addition the entire data set used in this study has been deposited in the Dryad Data Repository, doi: The northwestern Indian Ocean harbors a number of larger marine vertebrate taxa that warrant the investigation of genetic population structure given remarkable spatial heterogeneity in biological characteristics such as distribution, behavior, and morphology. Here, we investigate the genetic population structure of four commercially exploited shark species with different biological characteristics Carcharhinus limbatusCarcharhinus sorrahRhizoprionodon acutusand Sphyrna lewini between the Red Sea and all other water bodies surrounding the Arabian Peninsula.

To assess intraspecific patterns of connectivity, we constructed statistical parsimony networks among haplotypes and estimated 1 population structure; and 2 time of most recent population expansion, based on mitochondrial control region DNA and a total of 20 microsatellites. Our analysis indicates that, even in smaller, less vagile shark species, there are no contemporary barriers to gene flow across the study region, while historical events, for example, Pleistocene glacial cycles, may have affected connectivity in C.

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A parsimony network analysis provided evidence that Arabian S. Our results call for urgent regional cooperation to ensure the sustainable exploitation of sharks in the Arabian region. Understanding the spatio-temporal patterns of gene flow among geographically separated populations has long been a major focus in ecology.

Limited genetic differentiation over broad spatial scales is often associated with the high dispersal capacities of marine organisms, resulting from either a highly dispersive larval phase affected by ocean currents or the active movements of juvenile and adult specimens in animals lacking a planktonic larval stage.

Yet, there are numerous well-known examples of barriers to gene flow within and among populations that result in higher than expected genetic structure, even in species with presumed high levels of vagility e. Patterns of genetic population structure in sharks are not uniform across species, but range from localized genetic subdivision e.

The wide range of life histories and movement patterns exhibited by even closely related shark species hence hampers the a priori inference of spatial population structure.

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First, a number of resident marine vertebrate taxa display remarkable heterogeneity in biological aspects, such as distribution, behavior, morphology, and population genetics. Map of the Arabian Sea region, displaying collection locations circles of Carcharhinus limbatusC.

Numbers indicate fish markets or landing sites in Saudi Arabia, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Bahrain from where samples were obtained.

sharklato genetics

See Table S1 for number of tissue samples obtained from each landing site or fish market. Triangles display other main landing sites in Saudi Arabia from which sharks are transported to the main fish market in Jeddah. Geographical color codes refer to haplotypes in Fig.

Second, existing studies suggest variation in distributional and morphological patterns within Arabian elasmobranch species.Share your location to get the most relevant content and products around you. Leafly keeps personal information safe, secure, and anonymous. By accessing this site, you accept the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Great White Shark

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Check out photos people have shared with us. Calculated from 21 products tested with lab partners. Great White Shark plants grow best indoors and flower in weeks. It has a strong fruity aroma that alludes to its Super Skunk lineage. Information about effects is sourced from customer reviews. Cannabis affects individuals differently, so you may experience different effects. Customer-reported information is not a substitute for medical advice.

Always seek the advice of a health professional before using cannabis for a medical condition. Hang tight. We're looking for dispensaries that carry Great White Shark nearby. City, province, or postal code. Close search Search Leafly.

Welcome to Leafly. Thanks for stopping by.Share your location to get the most relevant content and products around you.

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You can unsubscribe from Leafly email messages anytime. Check out photos people have shared with us. Calculated from 21 products tested with lab partners.

sharklato genetics

Great White Shark plants grow best indoors and flower in weeks. It has a strong fruity aroma that alludes to its Super Skunk lineage. Hang tight. We're looking for dispensaries that carry Great White Shark nearby. City, state, or zip code. Close search Search Leafly. Welcome to Leafly. Thanks for stopping by. Where are you from? United States Canada. Are you at least 21?

sharklato genetics

Email address We won't share this without your permission. Learn about the new cannabis guide. Home Strains Great White Shark. Slide 1 of 2. Check out photos people have shared with us photos. Calming Energizing. Great White Shark. This info is sourced from our readers and is not a substitute for professional medical advice. Seek the advice of a health professional before using cannabis for a medical condition. Strain spotlight.

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Reviews I made the mistake and stopped the channel surfing on the golf channel Thankfully this strain will not send you on a man vs shark boat trip while you're trying to live a peaceful life with your family on Amity Island.Share your location to get the most relevant content and products around you.

Leafly keeps personal information safe, secure, and anonymous. By accessing this site, you accept the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. We use cookies to enable essential features of our site and to help personalize your experience. Learn more about our use of cookies in our Cookie Policy and Privacy Policy. You can unsubscribe from Leafly email messages anytime. Check out photos people have shared with us. Calculated from 16 products tested with lab partners. Shark Shock's origin is White Widow crossed with Skunk 1.

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Has a fruity taste and carries intense stoney effects. The plant will grow into a densely compacted white skunk with extreme aromas. Hang tight. We're looking for dispensaries that carry Shark Shock nearby. City, state, or zip code. Close search Search Leafly.

Welcome to Leafly. Thanks for stopping by. Where are you from? United States Canada. Are you at least 21? Email address We won't share this without your permission. Learn about the new cannabis guide. Home Strains Shark Shock. Slide 1 of 2. Check out photos people have shared with us photos. Calming Energizing. Shark Shock. This info is sourced from our readers and is not a substitute for professional medical advice.

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Population genetics of four heavily exploited shark species around the Arabian Peninsula

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A Nature Research Journal. Modern cartilaginous fishes are divided into elasmobranchs sharks, rays and skates and chimaeras, and the lack of established whole-genome sequences for the former has prevented our understanding of early vertebrate evolution and the unique phenotypes of elasmobranchs. Here we present de novo whole-genome assemblies of brownbanded bamboo shark and cloudy catshark and an improved assembly of the whale shark genome.

These relatively large genomes 3. Our thorough genome annotation revealed Hox C genes previously hypothesized to have been lost, as well as distinct gene repertories of opsins and olfactory receptors that would be associated with adaptation to unique underwater niches. We also show the early establishment of the genetic machinery governing mammalian homoeostasis and reproduction at the jawed vertebrate ancestor.

This study, supported by genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic resources, provides a foundation for the comprehensive, molecular exploration of phenotypes unique to sharks and insights into the evolutionary origins of vertebrates. Cartilaginous fishes Chondrichthyes are divided into two subclasses, elasmobranchs Elasmobranchii, including sharks, rays and skates and chimaeras Holocephaliand their common ancestor diverged from the rest of jawed vertebrates around million years ago.

More than a decade ago, the elephant fish, Callorhinchus miliia member of the Holocephali that comprises approximately 50 species, was chosen for whole-genome sequencing because of its small genome size 1.

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Since then, molecular comparative studies on vertebrates have largely relied on the C. For elasmobranchs, however, no reliable genome-wide sequence resource allowing extensive molecular analyses has been established to date, in spite of some attempts 34. Thus, there is an important need to obtain genomic information of elasmobranchs that will contribute to the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying their unique traits of morphology, reproduction, sensing and longevity 5as well as thorough demographic analyses for conservation 67.

Here we report whole-genome analysis of three elasmobranch species Fig. Bootstrap values were for all nodes.

The purple dots indicate the branches b1—b4 in d. The correlation was confirmed with phylogenetically independent contrasts for details, see Supplementary Note Abbreviated species identifiers are included in d. TSGD, teleost fish-specific genome duplication. We focused on the brownbanded bamboo shark Chiloscyllium punctatumfor which we recently tabled embryonic stages 8and the cloudy catshark Scyliorhinus torazame.

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Their whole genomes, measured to be approximately 4. We also assembled the genome of the whale shark Rhincodon typus using short sequence reads previously generated 3 Supplementary Note 1. Using these genome assemblies, we performed genome-wide gene prediction, assisted by transcript evidence and protein-level homology to other vertebrates.

The obtained genome assemblies and gene models exhibit high coverage Supplementary Fig. Using the novel gene models, we constructed orthologue groups encompassing a diverse array of vertebrate species see below. Our products outperform existing resources for elasmobranchs and provide the tools for genome-wide characterization of molecular evolution at the origin of jawed vertebrates and later in the chondrichthyan lineages.

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We first examined genome-wide trends of molecular evolution, utilizing one-to-one orthologues in the constructed orthologue groups Supplementary Note 7. Our comparisons of coding sequences detected a higher similarity in nucleotide and amino acid compositions of sharks to tetrapods and coelacanth than to actinopterygian fishes Supplementary Fig.

We performed a phylogenomic analysis using conserved protein-coding genes, which confirmed the phylogenetic positions of elasmobranchs and the reduced rate of molecular evolution in the entire chondrichthyan lineage Fig. The reduced evolutionary rate was further scrutinized by comparing the numbers of synonymous substitutions per site K S between chondrichthyan and osteichthyan lineages Fig. The result revealed that synonymous substitution rates for the chondrichthyan lineages were significantly smaller than those for almost all the osteichthyan lineages analysed Supplementary Note 12suggesting a reduced intrinsic mutation rate in the chondrichthyan lineages.

Our cross-species comparison revealed a remarkable increase in the intron lengths of shark genomes and its correlation with genome size Fig.

Our analysis on the composition of orthologue groups did not detect massive gene duplications in the chondrichthyan lineage Fig. Thus, the increase of genome size in sharks is not attributable to additional whole-genome duplication. To characterize noncoding regions, we first scanned elasmobranch genomes for repetitive sequences including those unique to the species analysed Supplementary Note 4.

This identified long interspersed nuclear elements as the most abundant class of repetitive elements, exceeding the proportions of long terminal repeats and those unclassified into any existing repetitive element class, both of which were particularly expanded in the catshark Fig.

Overall, the genomic regions identified as repetitive elements, including simple repeats, amounted to half of the individual elasmobranch genome assemblies, and their abundance contributed to the observed variation in genome size Fig.


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